Mild winters have allowed the adelgid to spread rapidly. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Width: 1-2'. How to identify trees Identification Keys, GlossaryAppendixTree ListsNative Trees that are Important Food Sources for Moths and ButterfliesSmall to Moderate-size Native Trees with Conspicuous FlowersNative Trees with Edible FruitsEndangered, Threatened, and Rare Trees of PennsylvaniaNative Early Successional Trees (sun-loving)Native Trees of Riparian ForestsNative Wetland TreesTrees that are at or Near the Southern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Northern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Eastern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Trees Listed by Family, Chapter 2. Fagus grandifolia. Revealingly, later travelers in these same regions described a forested landscape apparently due to successional growth. A Brief History of Penn's WoodsThe land that greeted the earliest Europeans to arrive in Pennsylvania was primarily forested, broken only by rivers, occasional wetlands, and clearings associated with Native American villages. The Tionesta Scenic and Natural Area in Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania includes the only sizable tract of old growth forest that remains in the state. The most valuable single product is black cherry, which is used mainly for veneer in the furniture industry. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles Pennsylvania is host to one national forest; the Allegheny National Forest contains just over half a million acres. Deer have consumed the lower layers of vegetation including tree seedlings and saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous species. Early accounts of the landscape of the interior of Pennsylvania contain frequent references like this descriptive passage by Fortescue Cumming while crossing Tuscarora Mountain in 1807, "view to the westward, though extensive, was cheerless and gloomy, over a broken and mountainous or rather hilly country, covered with forests, chiefly of the dark and sombre pine . The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. The first European settlers found extensive clearings created by Native Americans in the Cumberland Valley, Penns Valley in Centre County, and the Wyoming Valley, as well as other sites. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. Forest SuccessionWith few exceptions, rainfall, temperature, and soil conditions are suitable for the growth of trees throughout Pennsylvania. Initially open land will be colonized by species such as eastern red cedar, tuliptree, aspens, or red maple that grow well in the high light conditions of open fields. Native PA Species TREES for Stormwater Management in Erie County. The Pennsylvania Native Plant Society advocates conservation of native plants and their habitats and promotes the increased use of native plants in the landscape. See more ideas about plants, native plants, perennials. Influence of Native AmericansThe popular notion that European explorers and early settlers found a primeval forest free of human influence is inaccurate. An introduced or non-native plant is one that has been brought into the state to become established in the wild. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. Pennsylvania's State Tree is quite versatile in the ways it can be used in the landscape. Fourteen other smaller fragments are preserved in state forests or state parks. An iron furnace required 20,000-35,000 acres of forest to support it on a sustainable basis. Pennsylvania is home to a wide variety of trees, some living no where in the world, not to mention some of the oldest and longest living in the world. By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. Some of them such as Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, and empress-tree have seriously impacted remnant forests in urban and suburban areas. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. Pennsylvania Sedge (Carex pensylvanica) - PART TO FULL SHADE. Two trees that once grew here, Atlantic white cedar and swamp cottonwood, are extirpated (gone from the state). There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. Menu. Others, such as chestnut and butternut, have become rare through the impact of insects or diseases. You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. What wasn't usable as lumber was treated by slow heating and distillation in "chemical factories" that produced acetate of lime, wood alcohol, wood tar, charcoal, and gases. The Great Lakes beech-sugar maple forest is represented at the western end of the state. The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery, LLC 2415 Route 100, Orefield, PA 18069 Tel: 610/395-2570 Fax: 610/395-3546 E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.edgeofthewoodsnursery.com Container trees, shrubs, perennials, grasses, ferns, and aquatic plants. The oak-dominated forests that persist today, and native grasslands, most of which disappeared soon after Native Americans were ousted from the land, almost certainly owe their existence to traditions of large-scale burning among some groups of people for centuries or thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Pennsylvania native plants are plants that thrived in the area before settlement. Others including corktree, bee-bee tree, callery pear, and mimosa are just beginning to show invasive tendencies. Lancaster County’s Pennsylvania Native Tree and Shrub guide has been developed to increase the understanding and awareness of residents and officials of the environmental importance of native plant conservation and utilization. Rare SpeciesThe abundance of individual tree species varies greatly from those that are found throughout the state in a variety of habitats such as red maple, beech, and red oak, to those that are very limited in their occurrence. Plant two for better fruit set. Trees dominate the landscape and provide habitat structure for a multitude of other plants, animals, invertebrates, and microorganisms, thereby protecting biological diversity. A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. Sort Guide order; Alphabetical by display name; Alphabetical by scientific name; Grid Card. Research is ongoing to understand the cause(s) of a widespread dieback of sugar maple centered in Pennsylvania. It can be used as an accent plant or as a backdrop for small flowering trees. Thanks to all for your continued support of this program. This tree loves cool swamps, wet woods and bottomlands throughout Pennsylvania. Beech bark disease, which appeared in Nova Scotia about 1920, is still spreading across the northern half of the state reducing beech to groves of young sapling-size root shoots. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. Some particularly attractive varieties are the: Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) with its bright pink burst of color in spring; Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is showy in the fall with brilliant red leaves. The term climax forest was formerly used to describe the late successional stages of forest development. In addition to 2.1 million acres of state forests, Pennsylvania's publicly owned forest lands include another 277,000 acres in 116 state parks. We have over 1000 trees listed across the state that are big locally, or are the biggest in the state. Gaining in popularity, Pawpaws have the largest fruits of native fruit trees. Heart's Content, also in the Allegheny National Forest, has 100 acres of old growth hemlock-white pine forest. American sycamore 3. Learn More about PNPS. Quercus alba. A campaign led by Dr. Joseph Rothrock, resulted in the formation of a Division of Forestry within the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture in 1895 and the appointment of Dr. Rothrock as the first Forestry Commissioner. This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains beech, birch, sugar maple, hemlock, and white pine in the canopy. Cutting Down the TreesAs European settlers claimed the land, taming the wilderness meant cutting down trees and eradicating some forest wildlife, especially large predators, in order to make room for farms, towns, and villages and to assure the safety of pioneer families and their livestock. The gypsy moth, which spread into the state following its accidental release in eastern Massachusetts in 1869, reduced the importance of oaks through preferential feeding on members of the genus Quercus. Oak and other hardwoods are also important. Riparian areas throughout the state, where periodic flooding is a limiting factor, are characterized by sycamore, silver maple, box-elder, American elm, red elm, black willow, green ash, black ash, black walnut, and red maple. Wood not needed for fuel or building material was often burned early in the process of clearing the land; after all, there was a seemingly unlimited supply. Only a few fragments remain of the original forest. In the southeastern corner of the state, in a narrow sliver of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province that parallels the Delaware River, coastal plain forests contain sweetgum, willow oak, southern red oak, and sweetbay magnolia. The resulting scenes of devastation generated concern by groups throughout the state and led to the formation of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association. See more ideas about native plants, plants, wild flowers. Audubon Pennsylvania . Height: 8-16". Their banana like fruits add interest to the landscape. white oak 2. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. Major Forest TypesPennsylvania's climate, rainfall, and soil fertility support forest growth throughout most of the state with the exception of areas that are too wet or too rocky. Elders of the Lenni Lenape tribe have certified the tree has been venerated for 480+ years. The most recent invader, hemlock woolly adelgid, is killing our state tree the Canadian hemlock in southern and eastern parts of the state. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. Platanus occidentalis . The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. They protect the soil and facilitate ground water recharge by reducing runoff and erosion. 2004 | 416 pages | Cloth $59.95
Botany / Ecology/Environmental Studies
View main book page, Chapter 1. 6 Common Serviceberry—Amelanchier arborea— BF, PC,SY, LG, S Also know as Shadbush, this deciduous small tree grows from 15-25 ft. and is often found on rocky bluffs and upper slopes. As the ice receded, species that had found refuge farther south gradually returned. ISA Certified Arborist® Cat/R/M/S. The 6- to 9-inch-long leaves are a glossy green on top and pale green underneath. Pennsylvania Trees Objective for this presentation: ... Eastern Native Americans made a flour from them. .". We consider the flora present at the time Europeans arrived in North America as the species native to the eastern United States. State and federal officials want to stop it, and they’ve spent about $20 million this year on research and eradication efforts. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. Fossil pollen and charcoal preserved in bogs and lake sediments all across the eastern half of North America, as well as many of the earliest written observations, record wide-scale use of fire by Native Americans to manage their landscape. Inflorescence red-purple in very early spring. Here are some of the most common trees of Pennsylvania. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. We propagate and grow more than 80 species of perennial plants from local seed we collect in the wild. Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester, and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with red cedar, scrub oak, blackjack oak and sassafras. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. However, that forest is a fairly recent product of the geological evolution of Pennsylvania's landscape. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. These forests have a dense layer of shrubs such as mountain laurel and black huckleberry. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. Have you wondered what kind they are? These forests contain tuliptree, sugar maple, beech, basswood, red oak, cucumber-tree, yellow buckeye, Ohio buckeye, white ash, and black cherry. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. Forests and the trees and other species that comprise them are constantly changing systems. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? Never needs cutting unless to tidy. IMAGE INFORMATION; Striped Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Part/Shade Hgt. Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania's oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut's shift from widespread canopy dominant to minor status within just a few decades. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, there are 134 native and 62 introduced species of trees found in the state. Soil nutrient changes caused by acid rain appear to be part of the problem. The Forest TodayDespite dire predictions of Rothrock and others, Pennsylvania's forests did recover in the years following the great clearcut. Home; About; Contact; Our Plants. Trees came back not only on cutover lands, but also on abandoned farmland; today, second growth forests cover 59 percent of the state's land area. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. Charcoal making utilized small trees and could be done on a 25-year rotation in most areas. 494 Harvest Drive Rockwood, PA 15557 The railroad logging era, as it is known, allowed loggers to reach the vast interior of the state's forests. Mar 16, 2018 - Explore Diana Silvestri's board "Native Plants Pennsylvania", followed by 122 people on Pinterest. You probably even see these in your own yard and don’t even know it. . One hundred and thirty five species of trees are considered native to Pennsylvania. The major forest types are northern hardwood forest, oak-hickory forest, Great Lakes beech-maple forest, and mixed mesophytic forest. flowering dogwood 5. The spotted lanternfly, a brightly colored red and black moth-like insect and one of the latest invaders, landed in Pennsylvania’s Berks County around 2012 and has munched its way across 13 counties, threatening grapes, orchards and hardwood trees. Historically, the tree's lumber was important in making whiskey barrels and in ship building. Fall foliage red to red orange. Eighteen thousand years ago the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state were covered with ice, and tundra and boreal forests covered the rest of the state. Welcome to the Pennsylvania A-Z native species list. The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Wild black cherry reaches its best development in this zone, especially in the northwestern part of the state. The famous Revolutionary War frigate USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” was made of White oak. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Black walnut is one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring and one of the first to lose its leaves in the fall. Early lumbering—Tall, straight, and suitable for masts for ships, the eastern white pine was the first large-scale target of waves of loggers who assaulted Pennsylvania's forests. Abandoned farmland, and cleared or timbered land will become forested again through a natural process known as secondary succession. A colonial shrub species, grows from 3’ to 15’ tall, prefers full sun, low drought tolerance, blooms from April to July, white flowers, produces pear shaped red fruit that per- sists into winter. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … Dutch elm disease and dogwood anthracnose have taken their toll. Combining plants that grow well in the same natural habitats will help create healthy, vigorous plantings. Moist rich acidic soils. Red maple is a moderately fast-growing Pennsylvania-native shade tree best known for its brilliant red (sometimes red/gold) fall foliage. Altered ForestsImpact of pests and diseases—Pennsylvania's forests have also been profoundly affected by pests and diseases introduced from different parts of the world. The piles of logs were covered with earth and burned to produce charcoal that was then hauled by wagon to the iron works. During the railroad logging era, technology was present not only to harvest vast areas but also to utilize everything regardless of species or size. This medium-sized tree is favored for its uniform, upright growth. State game lands, administered by the Pennsylvania Game Commission, contain another 1.4 million acres in the public domain. The Value of TreesThe ecological importance of forests and trees to the well-being of the state is enormous. There are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Native Trees and Shrubs for Pennsylvania Properties. Apr 4, 2015 - Explore Lynn's board "Native plants of Pennsylvania", followed by 211 people on Pinterest. Native wildflowers, grasses, sedges & ferns Keystone Wildflowers provides a variety of Pennsylvania native plants, including wildflowers, ferns, grasses and sedges, shrubs, vines and trees. Charcoal making was another forest industry that thrived before the discovery of coal as a fuel. The cooling effect from transpiration and shading add to our comfort. Some of the same trees that are native to Delaware can also be found in Pennsylvania, as we are close neighbors. Pennsylvania's location spanning 40 degrees - 42 degrees north latitude and its varied terrain support 108 species of native trees and many other introduced from Europe and Asia. It is one of the most valuable timber trees, and often planted for ornamental purposes in open spaces. It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. Pennsylvania is full of sprawling forests that are home to some truly beautiful trees! Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. Trees listed as endangered in Pennsylvania are balsam poplar, beach plum, southern red oak, willow oak, Shumard oak, and showy mountain ash. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. In Pennsylvania, the clearing for farming and cutting trees for commercial uses that began with the first European arrivals had, by 1900, reduced the forest cover from 90-95 percent of the land area to 32 percent. We have listed them by scientific name because it is a constant and does not vary region to region or person to person. Like other green plants they utilize carbon dioxide and produce oxygen and sugars. With seasonal pruning it can be formed into an effective screen or hedge plant. On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests are dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common. Congratulations to Pete … Pennsylvania's Forest Heritage. northern red oak 1. More non-native plants are introduced every year. Four other tree species, short-leaf pine and three hawthorns, have been recommended for listing but a specific status has not yet been determined. Today many of the old railroad beds are the basis for a network of hiking trails. American beech 4. Native American populations were much larger before contact with Europeans introduced smallpox and other diseases; the extent of land impacted by their management was large. Spreads by underground stolons and self-sows. The tree's acorns were made into a flour by Native Americans and are an important food source for wildlife. Black or “Swamp” Ash. Evidence exists that Native Americans managed vast areas of forest with fire to create open, gallery-type forests, encourage species they prized for food, and also to clear fields where they grew corn, beans and other crops. Learn More about PNPS. The chestnut blight fungus, first discovered in New York City in 1904, swept through Pennsylvania reducing what had previously been our most abundant tree to minor status. Trees are also beautiful and restful to look at, conveying a sense of pleasure and well-being. Rail beds were constructed up every hollow, far into forests unreachable when proximity to water was necessary to transport the logs to markets. Authoritative, encyclopedic, lavishly illustrated guide to the trees of the state and region—from the Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Other accounts describe extensive grasslands and gallery-type forests in which one could "drive a carriage unhindered," apparently the product of Native Americans' regular use of fire to manage the landscape. : 15-20' Color: Yellow Bloom: April-May Plant Community: A Young trees-distinctive striped bark: Sugar Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Full/Part Hgt. The "Great Clearcut"—The invention of the geared logging locomotive set the stage for the great clearcut of Pennsylvania's forests that took place between 1890 and 1930. The “white oak group” includes all oaks without bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that ripen in one season. Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. We didn’t want to stop there! Doc ID: 1737092 Doc Name: sf-PSU TreeID Program.pdf; Error Message: Hemlock logs were cut and the bark stripped off and hauled to tanneries located in many parts of the state near the source of bark. Quercus rubra. To learn more about the native plants we currently offer, select the appropriate native plant type. Beech, sugar maple, and hemlock are so-called late successional trees because of their ability to grow and reproduce in low light conditions. Wood products including barrel staves, lath, shingles, boxes, and kindling wood were produced in hastily built factories located in temporary towns that sprang up throughout the northern tier of Pennsylvania. Today, it is not unusual to come across old charcoal hearths, level areas about 40 feet in diameter, scattered throughout the forests in areas where charcoal making occurred. Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. A grass substitute for dry, shady areas under trees. Understory trees typically include moosewood, witch-hazel, mountain holly, and shadbush. Don’t worry if you see beetles on the flowers – they are the only pollinators who will visit. Beginning in the 1760s, white pine logs 120 feet long and 4 feet in diameter (or larger) were cut in the hills of northeastern Pennsylvania, fastened together in huge rafts, and floated down the Delaware River to Philadelphia to provide masts for British ships. As early successional species modify the environment by increasing the organic matter and shading the forest floor, more shade tolerant species invade. Fencing to exclude deer is now a standard practice on state forest lands when timber is harvested; this is necessary to allow new trees to become established and grow beyond the browse line (the height deer can reach). However, current interpretation is to view the forest as a constantly shifting mosaic of patches created by individual tree falls and other small-scale change. Part to full shade. Pennsylvania native trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous material, seeds. Some native species such as umbrella magnolia and American holly are frequently cultivated and sometimes spread into nearby woodlands from cultivated sources, making a determination of their true status more difficult. The 65 nonnative trees included in this book are species that have spread into our native forests or other natural habitats. Allegheny plum and pumpkin ash have been recommended for endangered status. 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